In today’s world, our eyes are more vulnerable than ever before. We do not protect them and because of this, we have different diseases. One of the most common is cataracts.
This is a partial or complete clouding of the lens of the eye, located inside the eyeball. It is naturally transparent. The lens refracts light rays and transmits them to the retina. If it has lost its transparency due to a cataract, then it ceases to transmit light and vision deteriorate up to complete loss.
The main causes of cataracts are:
• Age-related changes;
• Hereditary predisposition;
• Inflammatory eye diseases;
• The presence of pathology (diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, bronchial asthma, etc.);
• Damage to the visual apparatus by ionizing, X-ray, ultraviolet rays;
• Lack of vitamins A, B, and C in the body.
The main symptom that leads a person to an ophthalmologist is blurred vision. The picture before the eyes becomes cloudy as if a veil appears. Cataracts are also characterized by the following symptoms:
• Lack of focus, it is difficult to concentrate on doing things such as sewing, reading, drawing;
• Distorted perception of colors;
• Difficulties in selecting corrective optical means.
Who is at risk of developing cataracts?
• Elderly people – age-related cataracts (90% of all cataract cases). It mainly occurs in people over 70 years old, but there are cases when it occurs even earlier at the age of 45-50 years.
• It occurs due to a change in the biochemical composition of the lens, due to age-related processes in the body. Clouding of the lens in terms of the functioning of the human body.
• A person who has been injured – traumatic cataract (4%);
• People after radiation exposure – radiation cataract (3%);
• Newborns – congenital cataract (3%). It accounts for more than half of all congenital defects of the organ of vision. Cataracts in newborns are caused by genetic changes in the structure of proteins necessary to ensure the transparency of the lens. The causes of cataracts in children under one year old can be diabetes in the mother, infectious diseases of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, and taking certain medications. The main thing, in this case, is the early diagnosis of congenital cataracts. If the size of the opacity in the lens does not interfere with the proper development of the organ of vision, then such a cataract does not require emergency surgical treatment.
• Persons abusing alcoholic beverages, smoking.
The only effective way to get rid of cataracts is surgical treatment, in which the clouded lens is replaced with a transparent artificial one, as close as possible in its properties to natural.
But it is also possible to treat cataracts with medication without the intervention of a cataract surgeon.
Eye drops help to improve metabolic processes in the lens and eye tissues surrounding this natural lens of the human visual system, which can stop the development of cataracts. But it is impossible to completely cure cataracts with drugs.
The essence of this operation is to replace the clouded natural lens of the human eye with an artificial one. The operation is performed without anesthesia, takes only about 15-20 minutes, and is usually fairly well tolerated. Local drip anesthesia used during the intervention eliminates unnecessary stress on the cardiovascular system and the body as a whole, the high safety of the procedure allows patients of any age group to be operated on. The rehabilitation period after cataract surgery is short and passes with a minimum of restrictions.
Modern artificial lenses have a yellow filter that protects the retina from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
Thus, we can conclude that no one is immune from cataracts, but thanks to modern technologies, they can be cured. Also with the help of constant preventive actions, such as: protecting your eyes from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation, do not neglect wearing sunglasses, including foods rich in vitamins and trace elements useful for vision the menu; quit smoking, you can delay or avoid cataracts altogether. Taking good care of your health can help you avoid many diseases, not just eye diseases.
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